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Tiger Reserve Service Directory
 
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Introduction         

Corbett has aptly been described as the land of the Roar, Trumpet and Song. It represents a scene of remarkable beauty.

Corbett had the proud distinction of being chosen as the venue for the inauguration of Project Tiger in India. The rich biodiversity of the Reserve is partly attributed to the variety of habitat found here. Due to the location of the Reserve in the foothills of the Central Himalayas both Himalayan and peninsular flora and fauna is found in the Reserve.


The grasslands are locally known as Chaurs, are limited. The largest grassland is the Dhikala Chaur. Some of the best grasslands including the famous Buxar Chaur and the Beri Chaur got submerged under the Ramganga reservoir in 1974. The areas made available as a result of the relocation of
the villages, Dhara, Jhirna and Kothirau in 1994 are being developed into grasslands through habitat management.

The Ramganga reservoir which came into being in 1974 stretches over an area of around 82 sq. km. with one half each in Corbett National Park and Sonanadi Wildlife Sanctuary.

The Corbett Tiger Reserve has a great variety of fauna on account of habitat diversity. It is very rich in avifauna. Zoological Survey of India has recorded over 585 species of resident and migratory birds here.
Conservation History

The Reserve area was named as 'Hailey National Park' in 1936. This was renamed in 1954-55 as 'Ramganga National Park' and again in 1955-56 as 'Corbett National Park'. Its the oldest National Park of India. It was one of the nine Tiger Reserves created at the launch of the Project Tiger in 1973. The original area of the Park was 323.75 sq. km. to which 197.07 sq. km. was added later. An area of 797.72 sq. km. was added as buffer of the Corbett Tiger Reserve in 1991. This area includes the whole of Kalagarh Forest Division (including 301.18 sq. km. area of Sonanadi Wildlife Sanctuary), 96.70 sq. km. of Ramnagar Forest Division and 89 sq. km. The administrative control over the entire area is that of the Field Director of the Reserve.

Census


Wild Species
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997

Tiger

123
128
134
--
138

Panther

100
102
110
--
109

Elephant

417
--
502
--
746

Cheetal

36525
--
31919
--
--

Sambar

5576
--
5695
--
5757

Barking Deer

2262
--
2271
--
2229

Hog Deer

292
--
294
--
477

Bear

54
--
58
--
40

Wild Boar

7670
--
7711
--
7906

Ghariyal

224
--
123
--
283

Mugar

118
--
119
--
301

Ghoral

424
--
433
--
451

Monkey

12663
--
12574
--
12764

Langur

14091
--
14187
--
14300

Blue Bull

--
--
313
--
466

Offence Cases

Year
Total Case
1993-1994 189
1994-1995 261
1995-1996 363
1996-1997 350
1997-1998 335


Information not available

Forest Types

Northern Moist Deciduous, Northern Tropical Dry Deciduous, Himalayan Subtropical Pine Forests

Major Flora

Main Species

Sal, Khair, Sissoo, Ber, Kuthber, Bel, Chbilla, Dhak, Semal, Khingan, Kharpat, Rohini, Bakli, Pula and Bamboo

Major Fauna

Main Species


Mammals:
Tiger, Leopard, Elephant, Cheetal , Sambar , Hog Deer, Barking Deer , Wildboar Langoor And Rhesus Monkey.

Birds : Peacock, Jungle Fowl, Partridges, Kaleej, Crow, Vulture, Parakeets, Laughing Thrush, Orioles, King Fishers, Drongo, Doves, Woodpeckers, Ducks, Teals, Storks, Cormorants and Seagulls .

Reptile : Indian Marsh Crocodiles Or Mugger , Gharials , King Cobra, Common Krait , Cobra, Russel , Python and Monitor Lizard .

Pisces : Mahaseer , Kalimuchi , Kalabasu , Chilwa and Goonch.

Management

The main focus of the management is on protection. The other thrust areas are habitat and water management. Corbett management is also focusing on ecotourism.

Special Projects

 

  1. Development of Interpretive Facilities - Under the aegis of the Indo-US Sub Commission on Science and Technology, the Wildlife Institute of India in collaboration with US Fish & Wildlife Service has initiated a project entitled Planning and Development of Interpretive Facilities in Corbett National Park. Corbett Centre for Conservation - An ambitious Corbett Centre for Conservation is being developed at Kalagarh on the boundary of Corbett National Park.
  2. The establishment of this facility is one of the major components of the World Bank aided UP Forestry Project. This centre will be developed in such a fashion so as to meet the training, research and extension requirements of the Wildlife Preservation Organization and the Forest Department of U.P. Construction of residential and mess facilities for 40 persons is in progress
New Initiatives

Several important initiatives have been taken by the Corbett Tiger Reserve management during the last five years.

Eco-development

The UP Forest Department has formulated guidelines on eco-development. Eco-development forms one of the important components under the World Bank aided UP Forestry Project. Eco-development Committees are being formed in villages situated in the peripheral areas of Corbett Tiger Reserve. So far, twelve eco-development committees have been formed.

A Spearhead Team for CTR was trained by WII during October, 1997. With the help of this team, staff, NGOs and Eco-development Committee members are being trained in participatory methods for microplanning and monitoring at Corbett Centre for Conservation by conducting workshops and study tours. During 1998, two cluster workshops were conducted for field staff from protected areas (PAs) of Uttarakhand. Seven Spearhead Team from different PAs of UP were trained in Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) methodology and technique of microplanning. EDC members from 22 villages were trained in three workshops so as to enable them to discharge their responsibilities effectively. Several workshops have also been conducted at village and range level as part of the microplanning process. Booklets in Hindi on different aspects of eco-development are being brought out as resource material for these workshops. Jaiv Vividhata Sanrakshan main Sahabhagita Kyon Aur Kaise and Microplanning Vidhi Aur Prarup have already been published and operational guidelines for eco-development are being prepared. The first microplan was prepared for Dhikolia village in December 1997 under the supervision of the Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun. Subsequently, three more microplans were prepared for Dhela, Dhikuli and Ringora villages. The programme is being implemented in these four villages. Microplanning is in advanced stages of completion in another eight villages.

Nature Guide Programme

In 1993, a training course of two and a half-month duration was organised for 25 educated unemployed youth. The participants were trained in natural history, visitor management and park interpretation and subsequently registered as nature guides in Corbett. Shortage of guides led to the organization of a second course in 1995 in which another batch of 25 youth received training.

The establishment of the guide service has convincingly demonstrated that Corbett has the potential to provide economic benefits to the local people through such linkages. An additional benefit has been that Reserve staff who used to be preoccupied with the duty of guiding the visitors is now free to carry management activities.

Eco-tourism

Workshops of various stakeholders connected with ecotourism in Corbett, Binsar Wildlife Sanctuary and Garhwal region have been organised to develop understanding and agreement between different stakeholders so as to ensure biodiversity conservation and maximize benefits to the local communities.

Voluntary Support

The Government of Uttar Pradesh has authorized the Directors of National Parks to accept voluntary gifts from visitors and NGOs. The Director maintains an account of the gifts received and send information to the Government.


Stone Masonry Wall

The Central Government has sanctioned Rs.141.00 lakhs for the construction of a 12-km. long stone masonry wall on the southern boundary of Corbett where it comes in direct contact with agricultural fields.

NGO Support

NGOs have come forward to assist Corbett in strengthening protection measures.

Education and Awareness

Visitor Centre - A visitor centre has been constructed to commemorate the Diamond Jubilee of Corbett National Park at Dhangarhi, the main entrance to Corbett National Park. This centre is being used to organize activities for both children and the villagers and provide information to the visitors. Interpretive facilities will be developed in the visitor centre as part of the Indo-US collaborative project on interpretation.

Corbett Newsletter - Corbett National Park became the first NP of India to have its own in-house magazine when the Corbett newsletter was first launched in April 1994. It is a quarterly publication with alternate issue in Hindi and English. The newsletter contains reports on incidents and activities in Corbett, policy changes and management initiatives and in depth articles on wildlife conservation specially those related to tiger. The Hindi edition is distributed free of cost to the villagers, school children and staff.

Constraints

Fire :

S.No
Year
Area Burnt (in Ha.)
Area burnt in percentage (%)
20. 1992-93 72.00 0.05
21. 1993-94 440.00 0.33
22. 1994-95 4645.00 3.52
23. 1995-96 1040.00 0.79
24. 1996-97 41.00 0.03
25. 1998-99* 41.00 0.014
  *Till 30 June 98    

Poaching of fauna and flora :

Year
Timber
Poaching
Fishing
1993-94
115
05
05
1994-95
138
08
07
1995-96
181
08
23
1996-97
153
21
11
1997-98
162
12
16

Human population

There is no village inside the Tiger Reserve. There are 92 villages at the distance of 2-3 km. from the boundary of Tiger Reserve. The human population of these villages is around 65,982.

Livestock population

Livestock population of 92 villages around the reserve is 44,416.

Highways

No Highway passes through the Reserve. There is a State Highway (Moradabad-Tehari S.H.No.4) lying on the Eastern boundary of Corbett Tiger Reserve from Ramnagar to Marchula for about 35 km.

Encroachment

There is total encroachment of 13.62 ha. by 74 families.

Weeds

The spread of exotic weeds such as Lantana, Parthenium and Cassia species is posing a major threat to the habitat. Vast stretches of the Reserve are choked with Lantana growth. Parthenium is invading fresh areas aggressively.

Dam

The construction of the multipurpose dam at Kalagarh across the Ramganga river in 1974 led to the submergence of 80 sq. km. of prime low lying riverine area, which abounded in ungulates and predators including tigers. As a result swamp deer has become locally extinct and there is a great reduction in the population of hog deer. Over the years, the reservoir has led to an increase in the number of aquatic fauna including muggers. The reservoir now provides an additional habitat for winter migrants.

Conflicts

Man-Animal

Cattle lifting by tiger and leopard takes places. There have been cases of poisoning of cattle kill carcasses by villagers.

Man-Forest

People in the villages around the reserve exploitation natural sources by way of cutting of trees and grasses.

Action Points

   
1.
Magisterial power to officers
2.
More vehicles: 4 wheelers for Range Officers and 2 Wheelers for Deputy Ranger/Forester.
3.
Wireless network to forest guard level
4.
More support such as house, education for children, drinking water, medical care for staff
5.
Increase in patrolling/anti-poaching activities
6.
Special allowance for staff
7.
Rewards for staff (like Governor's medal, President's Medal)
8.
Intelligence fund
9.
Smooth flow of funds
10.
Sensitization of Police/Administration/Judiciary etc.
11.
Filling up of vacancies
 

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