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Introduction   

Dudhwa Tiger Reserve has two core areas, Dudhwa National Park and Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary. These are 15 km apart, with agricultural land in between. Dudhwa National Park is situated on the Indo-Nepal border in the Lakhimpur-Kheri district in Uttar Pradesh. The Mohana river flowing along the Indo-Nepal border constitutes the northern boundary of the Park whilst the Southern boundary is formed by the river Suheli. The Kishanpur Sanctuary lies in the Lakhimpur-Kheri and Shahajahanpur districts in Uttar Pradesh.


The area of the Park is a vast alluvial plain, the doab of the Mohana and Suheli rivers, and interspersed with numerous rivulets, lakes and pools. The rich and extremely fertile Indo-Gangetic plains support a luxuriant growth of forests diversity of fauna.

Some of the grasslands are infested with the weed, Cymbopogon martinii. Dense mats of Tiliacora sq. another weed, has developed in a large portions of the Sal forests. These weeds are inedible and are spreading rapidly, making the affected areas inhospitable for herbivores.

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Conservation History       

The visit of Sir D.B. Brandis in 1860 to the area culminated in 303 sq. mile forest area of the present day Dudhwa National Park being brought under the control of Government in 1861 for preservation. In Kheri District all the Sal and miscellaneous forests and grasslands in Kharigarh Pargana, between the Mohana and Suheli rivers, were included in the then North Kheri Forest Division. More areas were reserved for protection between 1867 and 1879 and added to the Division. The area of the Division was legally constituted as Reserved Forests in 1937.

The Sonaripur Sanctuary comprising 15.7 sq. km. area was created in 1958 to specifically protect swamp deer (Cervus duvaceli duvaceli). The area was too small and was later enlarged to 212 sq. km. and renamed as Dudhwa Sanctuary in 1968. Later, more area was added to the Sanctuary and in 1977, it was declared Dudhwa National Park. The total area of the Park was 616 sq. km. of which 490 sq. km. was core zone and balance 124 sq. km. buffer zone.

Dudhwa Tiger Reserve was created in the year 1987-88 comprising Dudhwa National Park and Kishanpur Sanctuary (203.41 sq. km.). With an addition of 66 sq. km. to the buffer zone in 1997, the present area of the Tiger Reserve is 884 sq. km.

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Information not available

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Archeology       

Remnants of a fort in Nagra block. The fort has been run over by wilderness. Remains of mud walls of old habitation are also found in Nawalkhad.


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Forest Types  

  1.
  Northern tropical semi-evergreen Forest
  - Cane Breaks 2B/E1
  2.
  Northern Indian Moist Deciduous Forests
  - 3c/2b(ii)
  3.
  Damar Sal Forest
  - 3c/c2b (ii) 3c/c2d(i)
  4.
  Moist Bhabar Sal-Western light/Alluvial, Plains Sal
  - 3c/c2b-c2d(i)
  5.
  Chandar Sal
  - 3c/c2d(i)App.
  6.
  Terminalia tomertosa Forests
  - 3c/E1
  7.
  Low Alluvial Savannah Woodland
  - 3c
  8.
  Dry plain Sal Forest
  - 5B/C ib
  9.
  Moist Sal Savannah Forests
  - 3c/c2
  10.
  Tropical Seasonal Swamp Forests
  - 4D/SS2
  11.
  Khair Sissoo forests
  - 5B/152
     

Major Flora

Sal, Sal,Asna,Shisham,Bahera, Khair, Jamun .

Major Fauna

Main Species

Mammals: Tiger, Leopard, Swamp deer, Rhinoceros, Cheetal , Hog deer, Barking deer, Sambar, Wild boar and Ratel. Around 400 species of birds and 90 species of fishes have been identified at Dudhwa.

Endangered Species

Tiger, Swamp deer, Leopard, Ratel, Hispid hare, Bengal florican, Black necked stork.

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Management   

Protection and habitat management are the most important inputs.

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Special Projects      

The Rhino was reintroduced in Dudhwa in 1984-85. The seed population of 7 has now increased to 16.

New Initiatives

Eco-development

Eco-development through village level micro planning has been initiated since 1998-99.

Village Forest Protection Committees

Few Village Forest Protection Committees have been created. Persons with exceptional initiative in conservation have been named tiger guardians.

Protection Squads/Patrolling

For increased mobility and communication, resources have been obtained from Tiger Conservation Programme (WWF).

Education and Awareness

Eco-awareness camps have been organized. An interpretation centre was established in 1997-98.

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Constraints  

Education and Awareness

Eco-awareness camps have been organized. An interpretation centre was established in 1997-98.

Infrastructure

Adequate

Fire

Villagers often light fire for removing ground litter and obtaining fresh crop of grass.

       
Year
No. of fire incidences
Affected area(ha.)
Remarks
       
  1990-91
  1
  7.50
  Only ground fire
  1991-92
  -
  -
  -
  1992-93
  -
  -
  -
  1993-94
  -
  -
  -
  1994-95
  -
  -
  -
  1995-96
  45
  48.44
  Only ground fire

Encroachment

There is an old encroachment of 61.01 ha. at Gol Bhojhi of a Taungya village and some very minor old encroachments. Besides, there is a village called Surma, which is also classified as an encroachment. Of the 93 families in the village, 24 have been rehabilitated. Efforts are on to rehabilitate the remaining families out of the Reserve. The area involved in this encroachment is 547.15 acre.

Epidemics

None

Poaching of fauna and flora

There is some pressure for poaching of flora in fringe as the entire area of the Reserve is surrounded by habitation.

Smuggling

Some smuggling activity occurs across the International border.

Control of the Buffer

Buffer is under the unified control of the field director.

Grazing

The buffer zone bears the brunt of dense cattle population of adjoining villages.

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Conflicts

Man-Animal

Crop raiding by wild animals is common. In winter, when grasses inside the Reserve are coarse, the ungulates wander into adjacent wheat/sugar cane fields where they are susceptible to poaching. Carnivores following these herbivores at times take to cattle lifting. On one occasion, villagers poisoned the carcass of cattle, resulting in the death of a tigress and 3 cubs.

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Action Points       

Grassland management by way of weed eradication to increase the productivity.

Trans-border cooperation to control poaching smuggling.

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