Namdapha Tiger Reserve is named after the river Namdapha
originating from Daphabum, the highest mountain peak in the Reserve.
Almost the whole of the protected area has a dense cover of vegetation
with high hills, and numerous
rivers and seasonal streams. Four big cats viz. tiger, leopard,
clouded leopard and snow leopard are existing in the Namdapha.
Hoolock Gibbon, Golden Cat, Marbled Cat, Mishmi Takin, Red Panda,
Namdapha Flying Squirrel, White Wing Wood Duck, Namdapha Shortwing
Bird are indicative of unique faunal diversity of Namdapha.
More than 60 per cent of the area of the PA is virgin and unexplored.It
has only one motor-able road, that also up to 40th Mile during
These bottlenecks and remoteness of the large part of the Reserve
act as a natural barrier for its protection but at the same time
handicap management activities.
area was originally Reserved Forest and was declared as Wildlife
Sanctuary in 1972 under Assam Forest Regulation. It was declared
a National Park in 1983. In the same year, it was declared a Tiger
Reserve under Project Tiger Scheme of the Government of India.
An area of 177.425 sq. km. of Reserved Forest was added to the
Tiger Reserve in 1986.
Prior to constitution of Arunachal Pradesh, the entire Union Territory
was known as North East Frontier Agency (N.E.F.A.). A scheme for
the creation of a National Park in N.E.F.A. was proposed in 1947.
The area chosen for the purpose lies in the valley of the Diyan
or Noa-Dehing river and its catchment area, whose elevation above
mean sea level varies between 500 ft. at the Miao village to 15,020
ft. at Daphabum. The scheme aimed at the establishment of the
National Park for public recreation, research and study of wildlife
in natural surrounding of an area of 802.9 sq. miles.
After inquiry and settlement proceeding a draft for final notification
proposing the entire area from M'Pen to Vijoynagar for reservation
as it was thought, for unknown reasons, that it would be better
to do so. As a result of some controversy, the matter remained
Then came the 1962 Chinese war and afterwards papers related to
creation of a National Park could not be traced till 1969. The
Deputy Commissioner of Khonsa proposed to the Director of Forest
in1969 that as area of the proposed Reserved Forest extended upto
Patkai range and Daphabum is situated just on the inter-district
boundary between Tirap and Lohit, it would be suitable to name
it as Namdapha Reserved Forest instead of Daphabum Reserved Forest.
The area was declared a Reserved Forest under the Assam Forest
Regulation in the year 1970. Subsequently, after persistent follow
up by the forest department, the whole reserve was declared a
Wildlife Sanctuary in the year 1972.
Valley Tropical Wet Evergreen Forest ,Upper Assam Valley Tropical
Wet Evergreen , Upper Assam Valley Tropical Wet Evergreen Forests
,Assam Valley Tropical Semi Evergreen Forests ,Sub Himalayan Light
Alluvium Semi Evergreen Forests ,Secondary Moist Bamboo ,Eastern
Hoolock Forest ,East Himalayan Moist Temperate Forest ,Moist Alpine
than 700 naturalised plant species have been enlisted in Flora
of Melghat. These species belong to about 400 genera representing
as many as 97 families. There are 90 tree spp., 66 shrubs spp.,
316 herbs spp., 56 climbers, 23 sedges and 99 grass species alongwith
60-70 newly identified species.
macrocarpus, Terminalia myriocarpa, Shorea assamica, Abies delavavi,
Panther, Clouded Leopard, Snow Leopard, Sambar, Barking Deer,
Himalayan black bear, Gaur, Hoolock Gibbons..
Achievements and Shortfalls
management practice is confined to the improvement of habitat
and maintenance of the existing infrastructure, setting up of
new camps in the interior and taking up anti-poaching steps.
Reserve management achieved remarkable success in generating goodwill,
among the people along the periphery of the Reserve, by free distribution
of medicine and organising free medical check-up camps in the
Forest Protection Committees
Squads / Patrolling
1996-97, every year more than 50 villagers are taken to Kaziranga,
to learn about the importance of wildlife and its potential in
improving the economic
condition of the people through wildlife tourism and other activities
and also to make people feel proud about Namdapha heritage.
the core there are 6 small patches covering a total area of nearly
25 hectares, which are subjected to wet cultivation by local tribal
community and is under illegal occupation. Deban, M'pen and Gandhigram
settlements are on the periphery of the Reserve. They are very
small in size. Gandhigram has about 2000 people belonging to Lisu
tribe. The population of the other two villages is nearly 445
is no livestock in core. There exist a few 'Khutis of cattle'
between M'Pen and Gibbonsland on the periphery of the Reserve
wherein around 500 cattle are kept and are allowed to graze in
the nearby forest area. However, these cattle occasionally enter
the Reserve also. Cattle population of M'Pen and Deban villages
is merely 460 cows and 198 buffaloes. The figure of Gandhigram
is not available.
Valley (6 ha.) encroachment since 1950 and 42nd Mile (7 ha.) encroachment
since 1982 were removed/Vacated in 1998. There exist about 37
in the core. In the buffer there is small pressure from the cattle
of P.W.D. Camps and surrounding villages.
incidents of fire are rare. However, sometimes due to burning
of Jhum cultivation area in the fringe of the Reserve, the fire
spreads and thus few instances of forest fire occur along the
boundary. In recent years, forest fire incidents haves been detected
inside the Reserve also, which in all probability, are caused
by the illegal activities of some miscreants/ poachers.
Poaching of fauna and flora
||A Wild Boar and a Barking Deer
Criminals and Extremists
cannot be ruled out.
and mouth disease is noticed sometimes. But no epidemic has been
Control of the Buffer
Status of the area is Reserved forests. Steps have been taken
to change it to Wildlife Sanctuary under Wildlife (Protection)
to Gandhigram Road, 105 km. was constructed prior to constitution
of the Tiger Reserve. It is being maintained by the State P.W.D.
who have permanent camps at Deban and 40th Mile. Miao - Vijoynagar
Road (13 km.) passes through buffer zone.
case was reported in 1998, when 3 persons were injured by one
black panther in the village Bodhi-Satva near Deban.
reports are received regarding collection of non-timber forest
produce in the fringe area.
The forest personnel are provided with arms
and ammunitions but have not been provided with legal powers to
use these arms for the protection of the tiger project. It has
been experienced over the years that at the time of necessity,
management does not get any armed force from the local law and
order maintenance authority since the deployment of force inside
the tiger project comes last in their priority of work. If at
all the force is deployed it shows no initiative or involvement
in going inside the forest. Thus it is important that forest staff
and officials should be legally empowered to use to fire-arms
for discharge of wildlife protection duty.
Strive to provide basic necessities such as housing, medical aid,
education, safe drinking water, kerosene, electricity, transport
etc. to the field personnel and their families.
A proposed highway, bifurcating the Reserve may cause increased
poaching and illicit cutting of timber. This needs serious attention.
Illegal settlers are encroaching the area of the Reserve from
across the international border of the country. This must be checked.