Home | About us | Tigers & We | Project Tiger | Kids Section | Facts & Figures | Legal & Statutory | Conferences   
Crime Against Tiger | Report a Crime | Ecology & Research | Discussion Forum | Chat Room |Feedback | FAQ | Useful Links | Search   

 


 
 
Tiger Reserve Service Directory
 
|| Visit Another Reserve ||      
 

Back

Introduction    

The Pench Tiger Reserve is named after the Pench river, which flows from north to south through the Reserve. The Reserve is located in the southern reaches of the Satpura hill ranges in the Seoni and Chhindwara districts in the Madhya Pradesh state of India. The terrain is undulating, with most of the area covered by small hill ranges, steeply sloping on the sides.

The Reserve is situated in an area that holds a significant place in the natural history of Central India. The description of its natural beauty, richness in flora and fauna has appeared in numerous wildlife books dating back to 17th century. Books written in the 19th and early 20th century by famous naturalists like Captain J. Forsyth and Rudyard Kipling's Jungle Book explicitly present the detailed panorama of nature's abundance in this tract.

An extensive forest belt extends in three directions, north, east and south, covering forest tracts of Seoni, Balaghat and Nagpur districts. The contiguous forest on the southern side in the Maharashtra state of India, initially notified as Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru National Park has been recently included in the Project Tiger network by the same name as this Reserve. A dam was constructed on the Pench river on south-eastern boundary of the Reserve.

The area is criss-crossed by numerous seasonal streams and nalas. The Pench river flowing through the central line of the Reserve is dry by the April-end but a number of water pools locally known as dohs are found, which serve as waterholes for wild animals. A few perennial springs also exist in this area. However, the water sources are not suitably distributed, hence large area remains unutilized by the wild animals. The Pench reservoir at the center of the Reserve is the only major water source during pinch period.

As the prey concentration is high along the Pench river, tigers usually inhabit this belt. Leopards, though, generally operate in the peripheral areas but are occasionally seen in deep forests also. Jungle cats are commonly seen. Leopard cats, Small Indian Civets and Palm Civets are common but seen very rarely.

Wild dogs are commonly seen in packs of 12 to 15, near Chhedia, Jamtara, Bodanala and Pyorthadi areas of the Reserve. Wild Boar is ubiquitous. Sloth bear occupy hilly, rocky out crops and favour mahul bel infested forest. Chinkara is present in very small number and is found in open areas around Turia, Telia, Dudhgaon villages. Jackals are seen occasionally in near Tekadi, Alikatta and Chhindimatta villages


^ Top

Conservation History
Pench Tiger Reserve was created in 1992, becoming 19th Reserve in the Project Tiger network. The core zone of the Reserve, Pench National Park was created in 1983. This was carved out of the Pench Sanctuary created in 1977 with an area of 449.39 sq. km. The area of the Park is 292.85 sq. km., which is divided almost equally in two districts - 145.36 sq. km. in Seoni and 147.28 sq. km. in Chhindwara. The area in Seoni is all Reserve Forest whereas the area in Chhindwara includes 138.24 sq. km. Reserve forests, 6.26 sq. km. Protected Forests and 2.78 sq. km. revenue land. The buffer zone, 465 sq. km., comprises of 333.05 sq. km. of R.F., 102.36 sq. km. of P.F. and 29.59 sq. km. of revenue land. The total area of the reserve is 757.86 sq. km.


^ Top

Census

Animal
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
 
       
  Chital
  1473
  2630
  3452
  3908
  6666
  5547
  6300
  6800
  Sambhar
  830
  1395
  1810
  1843
  2237
  1752
  1850
  2221
  Bull Bull
  256
  673
  817
  867
  1353
  1272
  1200
  1384
  Barking Deer
  283
  317
  369
  488
  512
  281
  280
  334
  Chousinga
  59
  118
  128
  190
  199
  63
  80
  177
  Gaur
  125
  303
  360
  418
  438
  363
  385
  528
  Chinkara
  NA
  21
  25
  32
  34
  44
  50
  58
  Leopard
  11
  13
  17
  15
  15
  11
  16
  32
  Tiger
  25
  25
  27
  28
  28
  27
  33
  41

^ Top


Forest Types  

South Indian Tropical moist deciduous (slightly moist),Southern tropical dry deciduous teak bearing forests.,Southern dry mixed deciduous forest.

Major Flora

Main Species

Teak and its associates Moyan, Mahua, Mokha, Skiras, Tendu, Bija, Achar, Garari andAonla, Bhaman, Ghont, Baranga, Amaltas, Kihamali, Khair, Bhirra, Palas. Bamboo occurs sparsely, restricted to some valleys.

Major Fauna

Main Species

Mammals: Tiger, Leopard, Jungle Cat, Leopard Cat, Striped Hyena, Wild Dog, Wolf, Common Mongoose, Sloth Bear, Pangolin, Spotted Deer, Sambar, Barking Deer, Blue Bull, Wild Pig and Gaur etc.

Reptiles: Fresh water crocodile, Indian Chameleon, Common Krait, Indian Rock Python, Cobra, Indian Flap Shell Turtle, Peninsular black turtle etc.

Fishes: Padhan, Jhunda, Sanbal, Chalar, Dadai, Mahur, Kunda, Mrigal, Rohu, Calbasu and Mahasir etc.

^ Top

Management

Practices, Achievements and Shortfalls

There were two forest villages, Alikatta and Chedia, within the core zone of the Reserve. They were relocated in 1992 and 1994 to Durgapur and Khairanj respectively. The vacated areas are now excellent grasslands and animals especially spotted deer frequent these places in large number. Pyorthadi meadow which has been created on periphery of the reservoir is a favoured refuge for many species of wild animals during summer.

Sustained protection input of last 17 years has improved the habitat. Blue bull, Barking deer and four-horned antelope are increasing.

A good degree of efforts have been made to create water sources in various parts of the National Park. Due to poor water retention capacity of the soil, anicuts and tanks do not serve the purpose as these water-bodies usually get dry by the end of February. A few number of hand-pumps and artificial water holes have been created. This has given excellent results to serve as artificial water holes during the summer season, when the water is scarce. It has resulted in enhanced use of those habitats, which were not being utilised by animals.

^ Top

Special Projects

A research project, sponsored by W.I.I. on Bison is on.

New Initiatives


Eco-development

World Bank funded India Eco-development project is in progress.The major components are improved PA management, village eco-development, and environment education and awareness.

30 Eco-development committees have been taken up for work in the year 1989-90, remaining 69 E.D.C. will be taken up in the year 1999-2000.

Village Forest Protection Committees

Ninety nine Eco-development committees are striving to taken up the additional work of forest protection.

Protection Squads / Patrolling

One patrolling squad has been constituted.

^ Top


Constraints

Human population
Presently there is no human population in the core. Growing population pose a serious threat on the forest in the buffer areas.

Livestock population

There is no livestock population in the core. Heavy population of unproductive livestock causes suppression of seedlings and regeneration of plants in the buffer. In last five years, livestock population has multiplied four times from 257 to 1030.

Weeds

In most of area in Chhindwara district which are open to grazing as well as some parts of Tikari and Ambari beats, the ground is devoid of grasses and regeneration. In Chhindwara area the land is infested with Cassia tora and Xanthium strumarium while in Tikari, Chhedia, Alikatta and Ambari beats Lantana camara has spread over large areas. Spread of Parthenium is tremendous in the submergence area in the recent past

Encroachment

No encroachment reported.

Grazing

In the core area, grazing is common in the Chhindwara district, and near Turia and Khamrith villages in Seoni district. Grazing is very severe in most of the buffer areas.

Fire

Fire is not common in the Reserve

Fire incidence year wise


Year
Cases No.
Area in Hectare
     
  1992
  10
  70
  1993
  3
  65
  1994
  16
  280.5
  1995
  2
  12.5
  1996
  3
  24
  1997
  5
  60
  1998
  1
  10


Poaching of fauna and flora

     
Year
Case
Poaching (Wildlife)
  19992
  2
  Chital-1, Sambar-1
  1993
  1
  Sambar-2
  1994
  3
  Sambar-1, Chital-1
  1995
  5
  Tiger-2, Chital-2, Blue Bull-1, Sambar-3
  1996
  6
  Wildpig-4, Tiger-2
  1997
  1
  Chital-3, Blue Bull-1, Sambar-1
  1998
  2
  Tiger-1, Bison-2

Criminals and Extremists

Fishermen at the reservoir are indulges in criminal activities, threatening the staff engaged in patrolling. In the 1997 fishermen attacked a patrolling party and injured 2 guards and 4 daily wage laborers.

Diseases

Sporadic incidences of foot and mouth diseases, H.G. and black quarters are detected. Prophylactic immunization is undertaken with the help of local Veterinary Department.

Control of the Buffer

Since May 1995, the Pench Sanctuary in the buffer has been brought under the control of the Reserve management. The remaining areas of the buffer are under the management of South Seoni Territorial Divisions, and East Chhindwara and South Chhindwara Territorial Divisions.


^ Top

Conflicts

Man-Animal

With the increase in animal population, crop depredation in the villages around core is on the increase. Effort is being made to control the damage under the India Eco-development Project.

Occasionally, cases of cattle-lifting by tiger are reported, especially near Gumtara village, and regular livestock lifting by leopards near the periphery of the core area is reported.

Man-Forest

The people of Gumtara, Jamtara and Kokiwada are depended on forest for their daily needs i.e. fuel, fodder and non timber forest produce resulting in hampering of regeneration of forest growth.

^ Top


Action Points  

   
Woody encroachment of grasslands by Palas, Lendia and Saja along with other weeds need treatment.
2.
Early settlement of the fishing rights of 305 fishermen and regular patrolling of the reservoir with fast moving boats.
3.
Unified control of entire buffer zone.


Back

Tiger Reserve Service Directory